Basic oxygen furnace

The decarburisation is conducted in the converter process. The most common type of converter process if the basic oxygen furnace - also known as the Linz-Donawitz (LD) converter. In this process, the oxidising gas mixture is injected via supersonic top lance.

Mathematical modelling

In 2017, I cooperated with Aalto University on mathematical modelling of the basic oxygen furnace. Their model is based on solution of complex reaction equilibria with the help of Partiotioning of Gibbs Energy (PGE) routine. The model employs the Unified Interaction Parameter (UIP) formalism and Modified Quaasichemical Model (MQM) for describing the non-ideality of metal and slag species, respectively.

Novel measurements

Currently, I am involved in a study, in which new online-measurements are employed for controlling dephosphorisation in BOF.




  1. M. Saqlain, M. Owais, M. Järvinen, V.-V. Visuri, and T. Fabritius, ”Dephosphorization in ironmaking and oxygen steelmaking”, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland, 2018.
  2. A. Kruskopf and V.-V. Visuri, "A Gibbs Energy Minimization Approach for Modeling of Chemical Reactions in a Basic Oxygen Furnace", Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 3281–3300, 2017. 
  3. V.-V. Visuri, ``Basic Oxygen Furnace", in M. Aula, A. Heikkilä, M. Iljana, T. Sipola, and V.-V. Visuri (eds.), "Steel industry - what they measure and how?", Department of Process and Environmental Engineering Report 345, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, pp. 67–79, 2014.
  4. P. Sulasalmi and V.-V. Visuri, "Environmental aspects of BOF slag and dust", in M. Aula, J. Haapakangas, A. Heikkilä, M. Iljana, A. Kemppainen, J. Roininen, P. Sulasalmi, and V.-V. Visuri (eds.), "Some environmental aspects of BF, EAF and BOF", Department of Process and Environmental Engineering Report 343, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, pp. 61–76, 2012.

Theses instructed

  1. M. Prokkola, "Development of steel alloying calculation model", Master's thesis, University of Oulu, 2016.
  2. S. Niemetmaa, "Improving yield and steel cleanliness by optimization of the tapping stage", Master's thesis, University of Oulu, 2015.