ferrochrome converter (CRC) is to remove silicon as well
as part of carbon from the molten ferrochrome by blowing oxygen into
the melt. The CRC process produces raw material for the AOD
converter used in stainless steel production, whereas the raw materials
of the CRC are molten ferro-chrome with high silicon and carbon
contents and stainless steel scrap. Therefore, the CRC process serves
effectively as a link between the ferrochrome production
and the production of stainless steels. At Process Metallurgy Research
Unit, the research has focussed on the chemical reactions and their
equilibria in the metal bath.
fast electrochemical method was tested successfully for determination
of the initial silicon content in the ferrochrome converter process.
Consequently, it is possible to make more accurate calculations for
process control and thereby reduce process variation, environmental
burden and operating costs.
Visuri, E.-P. Heikkinen, J. Kaisto, A. Harju, R. Mattila, P. Kupari,
T. Ikäheimonen, and T. Fabritius, “The Effect of the MgO Content of
Slag on its Penetrability into the Refractory Lining in a Ferrochrome
Converter,” Proceedings of the 16th International Ferro-Alloys Congress
(A. Wærnes, G. Tranell, M. Tangstad, E. Ringdalen, and C. van der Eijk,
eds.), SINTEF/NTNU/FFF, Trondheim, Norway, 2021.
Visuri, T. Ikäheimonen, and T. Fabritius, "In Situ
Measurement of Silicon Content in Molten Ferrochrome", Proceedings of the 3rd European
Steel Technology and Application Days, The Austrian
Society for Metallurgy and Materials, Vienna, Austria, pp. 1218–1227,
- E.-P. Heikkinen, T. Ikäheimonen, O. Mattila, T. Fabritius,
and V.-V. Visuri,
“Behavior of Silicon, Carbon and Chromium in the Ferrochrome Converter
– A Comparison Between the CTD and Process Samples”, Proceedings of the 6th European
Oxygen Steelmaking Conference, Jernkontoret, Stockholm,
- A. Harju, "Interaction of ferrochrome converter slag with doloma and magnesia-carbon refractories (in Finnish)", Bachelor's thesis, University of Oulu, 2019.
- J. Kaisto, "The effect of CRC slag MgO content on the penetration of slag into refractory lining", Master's thesis, University of Oulu, 2018.
- H. Pesonen, "Determination of the content of silicon in
ferrochrome by an electrochemical measurement", Master's thesis,
University of Oulu, 2016.
- A.-M. Heikka, "Measurement of melt temperature at
ferrochrome works", Bachelor's thesis, University of Oulu, 2016.