The amount of inclusions as well as their composition, size and morphology have a significant effect on the quality of stainless steel. In order to investigate the inclusions in the production of 316Ti grade stainless steels, the inclusion compositions were analysed from the steel melt shop process samples and were compared with thermodynamic calculations. The results were then used to estimate the influence of aluminium and titanium contents of the metal on the formation of oxide and nitride inclusions at different temperatures and contents of oxygen and nitrogen.



  1. E.-P. Heikkinen, J. Savolainen, T. Ikäheimonen, V.-V. Visuri, and T. Fabritius, ”A study on the Al-Ti-O-N inclusions in austenitic stainless steels – a comparison between CTD and process samples”, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Clean Steel, Hungarian Mining and Metallurgical Society, Budapest, Hungary, pp. 316–329, 2012.